Consolidate Code of Operating Rules - Revised 1959

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Note.—Automatic Block Signal System is in use on portions
of the railroad and on designated tracks specified in the time-table or in special instructions.

505. Automatic block signals, cab signals, or both, govern the use of blocks, but unless otherwise provided, do not supersede the superiority of trains nor dispense with the use or the observance of other signals whenever and wherever they may be required.
On any track signaled for traffic in both directions, block signals apply to trains in the direction of their movement.
On any track signaled for traffic in one direction, block signals apply only to trains moving with the current of traiiic.

509. When a train is stopped by a Stop indication, if the indication of the signal does not change it must stay until authorized by the train dispatcher to proceed, and will then proceed at restricted speed.
In case of failure of communication or when no means of communication is provided, train may proceed at restricted speed when preceded by a flagman to the next Clear or Approach signal.
When the train dispatcher knows there is no opposing train or engine movement involved, he may verbally authorize the train to proceed in the following form, "You may proceed at restricted speed to the next signal".
If the train dispatcher does not positively know there is no opposing train or engine movement involved, he may verbally authorize the train to proceed in the following form, "You may proceed under flag protection to the next Clear or Approach signa1".
When flagging from a Stop signal, train must wait ten (10) minutes after flagman has started.
If the track ahead is seen to be clear through to the next Clear or Approach signal, train may proceed at restricted speed from the Stop signal without sending a flagman ahead.
When a flagman has been sent ahead, he must be on the lookout for train, obstruction, switch not properly lined, broken rail, slide warning device plug pulled out, or anything that may affect the movement of the train.
Flagman may be picked up, if a point is reached from which track ahead can be seen to be clear through to the next Clear or Approach signal. After flagman has been picked up, train must proceed at restricted speed to the next signal.

S-509. When a train or engine without a brakeman, or other specifically designated train, is stopped by a Stop indication under conditions requiring a flagman be sent ahead to comply with Rule 509, it may proceed at restricted speed to the next Clear or Approach signal without sending a flagman ahead. Train ` or engine must be moved forward until leading wheels are one car length past Stop signal, then wait ten (10) minutes before proceeding.

509 (A). At meeting or passing points, when a train is stopped under conditions requiring a flagman be sent ahead, if the engineer is verbally informed by a trainman of a train on siding that his train has more cars than the siding will hold, the train holding main track may proceed at restricted speed without sending a flagman ahead.

S-509 (B). When a train is stopped by a Stop-and—proceed indication at the leaving end of a siding, such indication may be due to an opposing train proceeding on an approach indication and every precaution consistent with train rights and the track ahead must be taken before proceeding.

509 (C). When block signal rules require movement at restricted speed, this speed must not be increased until after the rear of the train has passed through the block.

510. When a train or engine is stopped by a block signal which is evidently out of order, unless otherwise provided, the fact must be reported to the train dispatcher at the first stop or first open office.

511. Both switches of a cross—over must be open before a train or engine starts to make a cross-over movement, and the movement must be completed before either switch is restored to normal position.

512. Where switch indicators are used, the indications displayed do not relieve members of a crew from protecting their train as required by the rules.

513. Before a train or engine enters on or fouls a main track, or crosses from one main track to another, at any hand operated switch, including dual control and spring switches when hand operated, it must wait three (3) minutes after all switches and derails connected with the movement have been operated.
EXCEPTIONS: Movement may be made to main track without waiting three (3) minutes, under the following conditions, but employes are not relieved from the duty of promptly and properly protecting the movement:

(a) On single track if the switches and derails have been changed before the rear of an opposing train has passed the next signal in the direction of its movement.

(b) In CTC territory, when movement to main track is authorized by the control operator.

(c) At points where switches are in charge of an employe assigned to handle switches, when proceed signal is received from such employe, who must not give proceed signal until three (3) minutes after switches have been properly lined.

(d) When signal governing movement to main track displays Clear or Approach indication.

514. A train or engine entering a block between signals must be protected as required by the rules and must proceed at restricted speed to the next signal.

514 (A). A train or engine or cars on siding or other tracks must stand clear of insulated joints at the clearance point.
When a train or engine enters a siding or other track, the main track switch must be kept open until the entire train has passed the insulated joints at the clearance point.
Trains or engines proceeding from sidings or other tracks to the main track, must remain clear of the insulated joints at the clearance point on such tracks until the main track switch has been opened.

515. A train or engine having passed beyond the limits of a block must not back into that block, except under protection as prescribed by Rule 99 or train order.

516. A train or engine which is to enter a siding or yard track at a point where the switch to be used is not more than 500 feet beyond an automatic block signal, displaying Stop or Stop- and-proceed indication, may pass such signal at restricted speed, without stopping, provided the switch is properly lined, and the track is seen to be clear.

518. Light weight motor trains of three cars or less, an engine without cars, or cuts of less than four cars, must not stand on sanded rails on main track.

519. Unless otherwise provided, when a train or engine has been stopped by a signal governing movement through or over a spring switch, and signal continues to display Stop indication, or Stop-and-proceed indication, in addition to complying with rules governing movement from Stop indication, or Stop-and proceed indication, Rule 104 (B) must be complied with before proceeding.

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605. Interlocking signals govern the use of the routes of an interlocking, and as to movement within interlocking limits, their indications supersede the superiority of trains, but do not dispense with the use or the observance of other signals whenever and wherever they may be required.

606. Unless otherwise provided, interlocking signals located in automatic block signal territory are a part of the automatic block signal system.

607.                         EMERGENCY SIGNALS

(Whistle or Horn)

Note.—The signals prescribed are `illustrated by "0" for short sounds; "—" for longer sounds.

(a) ———————————- All trains and engines within interlocking limits stop immediately.
(b) o o Resume normal movement after receiving the proper signal or permission from the operator.
(c) o o o Whistle or horn test.
(d) o o o o Call signal maintainer or repairman.

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611. Unless otherwise provided, interlocking signals must be kept in the position displaying the most restrictive indication, except when displayed for an immediate movement.

612. Appliances must be operated carefully and only by those charged with that duty. If any irregularity affecting their operation is detected, the signals must be displayed to give their most restrictive indication until repairs are made.

613. When the route is set, the signals must be operated sufficiently in advance of approaching trains to avoid delay.

615. When necessary to change any route for which the signals have been cleared for an approaching train or engine, switches, movable point frogs or derails must not be changed or signals cleared for a conflicting route until the train or engine for which the signals were iirst cleared has stopped.

616. The lever operating a switch, derail, movable point frog or lock must not be moved when any portion of a train or engine is standing on or closely approaching the switch, derail or movable point frog.

617. Operating levers must be blocked or marked and should not be used when a track, switch or signal is undergoing repairs or when a track is obstructed.

618. At mechanical interlockings, during cold weather, the levers must be moved as often as may be necessary to keep connections from freezing.

619. If the force whose duty it is to keep switches clear when snow or sand is drifting is not on hand when required, the fact must be reported to the superintendent.

620. If a signal fails to work properly, its operation must be discontinued and until repaired the signal secured so as to display its most restrictive indication.

621. Operators must observe, as far as practicable, whether the indications of the signals correspond with the position of the levers.

622. Operators must not make nor permit any unauthorized repairs, alterations or additions to the interlocking.
Any defects in the interlocking must be promptly reported to the superintendent.

623. If there is a derailment or if a switch, movable point frog or derail is run through, or if any damage occurs to the track or interlocking, the signals must be restored so as to display their most restrictive indication, and no movement permitted until all parts of the inter- locking and track liable to consequent damage have been examined and are known to be in a safe condition.

624. When necessary to disconnect a switch, movable point frog, derail, facing point lock or electric locking circuits, before any train or engine is permitted to pass over them, all switches, movable point frogs and derails affected must be securely spiked or fastened in the required position and the levers blocked or marked in such a manner that they cannot be operated.

625. When switches, movable point frogs, derails or signals are undergoing repairs, Stop indication must be displayed for any movement which may be affected by such repairs, until it has been ascertained from the repairman that the switches, movable point frogs and derails are properly lined for such movement.

626. Operators must, as far as practicable, observe all passing trains and note whether they are complete and in order; should there be any indication of conditions endangering the train, or any other train, the operator must take such measures for the protection of trains as may be practicable.

628. Hand signals must not be used when the proper indication can be displayed by the interlocking signals.

629. If necessary to authorize a train or engine to pass an interlocking signal indicating Stop, hand signal or permission may be given by the operator. Such occurrence must be reported to the superintendent.
Hand signals must not be given until the route has been examined, is known to be safe for the passage of trains, and until after the train comes to a stop at the home signal. Operator will then give hand signal from the center of the track on which the train movement is to be made, using a yellow Hag by day or yellow light by night.
When more than one train is in sight and confusion may result, hand signal must be given from a point where it cannot be misunderstood.

629 (A). At interlockings where distances make it impracticable for operator to examine routes and give hand signals, trainman must begoverned by instructions from operator, examine route and operate switches by hand as required, before proceeding.

630. Operators are responsible for the care of the interlocking station, lamps and supplies.

631. Lights in interlocking stations must be so placed that they cannot be seen from approaching trains.

633. If a train or engine over-runs a Stop indication, the fact must be reported to the superintendent.

634. Operators must not permit unauthorized persons to enter the interlocking station.

635. During a stated period, an interlocking station may be closed upon authority of the superintendent.
When so closed, switches and switch levers must be secured for routes that do not conflict, and signal levers placed in position so that signals will display the proper indication.
The interlocking station must be securely locked.

637. When it is safe to do so, switches and signals may be operated on the request of sectionmen, signalmen, maintainers or inspectors.

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661. If a signal indication permitting a train or engine to proceed, after being accepted, is changed to a Stop indication before it is reached, the stop must be made at once. Such occurrence must be reported to the superintendent.

663. After stopping, train or engine may pass an interlocking signal indicating Stop, after receiving a hand signal from the operator given with a yellow fag by day or a yellow light by night, from the center of the track on which the movement is to be made.
At interlockings where distances make it impracticable for operator to examine routes and give hand signals, trainman must be governed by instructions from operator, and must examine route and operate switches by hand as required, before proceeding.
Movement on hand signal or permission of the operator must be made at restricted speed.
In automatic block signal territory, when the interlocking signal governs the block beyond the interlocking limits, movement must be made at restricted speed through the entire block.

669. Trains or engines stopped by the operator in making a movement through an interlocking, must not move in either direction until they have received the proper signal from him.

670. A reverse movement within the limits of an interlocking, or a forward movement after making a reverse movement, must not be made without the proper interlocking signal indication or permission from the operator.

671. While an interlocking station is closed, should a signal for an open route indicate Stop, movements through the interlocking must be preceded by a flagman. Before proceeding, the engineer and trainmen must know the route is properly lined.
In addition, if the interlocking governs movement over a drawbridge, engineer or trainmen must ascertain if bridge is in proper position for passage of a train.
The facts must be reported to the superintendent from the first available point of communication.

672. When a train or engine is stopped by the Stop indication of an automatic interlocking signal, and no immediate conflicting movement is evident, a member of the crew must operate the time release.
If signal does not change its indication at expiration of time release interval, train or engine may then proceed on hand signal from a member of the crew at the crossing if there is no train or engine approaching on conflicting routes.
If a train or engine is approaching on a conflicting route, hand proceed signal must not be given until such movement has been completed over the crossing, or has come to a stop at the governing home signal.
If a train or engine is standing between the home signals on a conflicting route, the proceed signal must not be given until after a thorough understanding has been had with the crew of — the train or engine on the conflicting route. Where smash—boards are in use, instructions for hand operation are posted in release box.

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700. Carelessness of a person’s own safety or that of others is prohibited.
Employes will not be retained in the service who are careless of the safety of themselves or others, insubordinate, dishonest, immoral, quarrelsome or otherwise vicious, or who do not conduct themselves in such a manner that the railroad will not be subjected to criticism and loss of good will, or who do not meet their personal obligations.

701. Courteous conduct is required of all employes in their dealings with the public, their subordinates and each other. Boisterous, profane or vulgar language is forbidden.
Playing practical jokes, scuffling, wrestling or lighting while on duty or on company property, as well as throwing of tools or material, is prohibited. »
Employes must not enter into altercation with any person, regardless of provocation, but will make note of the facts and report such incident in writing to their immediate superior.

702. Employes must be alert and devote themselves exclusively to the company’s service, attend to their duties during the hours prescribed, reside where required by the management, and comply with the instructions from the proper authority in matters pertaining to their respective branches of the service. They must not absent themselves from duty, exchange duties with or substitute others in their place, nor engage in other business without proper authority.
An employe subject to call must not absent himself from his usual calling place without notice to those required to call him.
The reading of newspapers, books or periodicals, or the playing of games while on duty is prohibited.

702 (A). Each employe governed by Hours of Service Law must notify the proper officer of the time the law requires him to be off duty early enough so that he may be relieved, if necessary, before exceeding the hours of service permitted by law.

703. Employes must not disclose information regarding the affairs of the railroad to any person except to authorized officers or to persons authorized by law to receive it. They must not permit unauthorized persons to have access to books, waybills or other statistics in their charge.

704. Employes must exercise care and economy in the use of railroad property, and when leaving the service, or upon demand by proper authority, must return property entrusted to their care.

705. Unless specially authorized, employes ‘ must not use the railroad’s credit and must neither receive nor pay out money on the rail- road account. Property of the railroad must not be sold nor in any way disposed of without proper authority. All articles of value found on railroad property must be cared for and promptly reported.

706. The telegraph or telephone must not be used when mail will answer the purpose. Messages must be briefly worded and confined to railroad business.
Letters of a personal nature must not be sent by railroad mail.

707. Railroad premises must be kept in a safe, clean and orderly condition.

708. Employes are prohibited from altering, nullifying, changing design of, or in any manner restricting or interfering with the normal intended function of any device or equipment on engines, cars or other railroad property without proper authority except in case of emergency, in which case wire report must be made to proper officer.

708 (A). Employes are prohibited from having loaded or unloaded firearms in their possession while on duty except those employes authorized to do so in the performance of their duties or those given special permission by the superintendent.

709. No persons, except employes in discharge of their duties, or officers in line of duty, will be permitted to ride on an engine or in a baggage, mail or express car, or on a track car, without a written order from the proper authority.

709 (A). When necessary for trainmen to ride in cab of trailing unit, they must not tamper with any of the switches or valves nor place feet on dashboard or windshield.

710. Passengers will not be carried on freight trains except as authorized by timetable or special instructions, or as otherwise authorized. Trainmen must warn passengers about the hazard of injury in starting and stopping and request they remain seated while train is moving.

711. Before stopping for meals, the conductor or engineer must notify the train dispatcher sufficiently in advance to avoid delay to their train or other trains.

712. Employes must observe rules for other classes of employes that relate in any way to the proper discharge of their own duties or the safety of operation.

713. Employes must observe trains closely and if anything unusual or defective is noted, such as hot journal, brakes sticking, dragging brake rigging, sliding wheels, indications of fire, lading shifted over side or end of car, protruding objects, swinging car door, or any other dangerous condition, they must make every effort to call the attention of the crew on the train to such conditions. If train is moving, stop signal must be given. Train dispatcher must be notified at once if unable to stop train.
When meeting or passing other trains, and when passing stations and points where trackmen or other employes are working, members of the crew on moving trains must be on the lookout for signals and take immediate action when necessary.

713 (A). When a train is stopped to be met or passed by another train, crew of standing train must inspect passing train. When safe to do so, forward trainman must cross track and inspect passing train from the farther side and rear trainman or conductor must inspect the passing train from side nearest his own train.

713 (B). Unless directed otherwise by the train dispatcher, agent or operator must be on station platform to inspect passing trains and must have fusee in his possession to give stop signals if necessary. At night a white light must be used in exchanging signals with crews of such trains.

713 (C). In departing from stations, and at every opportunity on the road, members of the crew must carefully inspect their train, especially while rounding curves, to observe train for defects. If train is moving when defect is discovered, train must be stopped. If possible, defects should be remedied, but if this cannot be done and if car is unsafe to run, it must be set out and the train dispatcher notified.
When car is set out account hot box, packing must be removed and fire extinguished. In addition, it must be ascertained that there is no fire on car body, and that dust guard is not burning nor smouldering, taking whatever action is necessary before car is left, to eliminate the possibility of fire.
In starting freight trains, the speed for the first train length must be such as will permit full inspection by the train crew, and permit them to safely board the train.
When practicable, while train is moving, frequent inspection must be made of track from rear of train.

714. Employes on a train must be alert to prevent being struck by objects which may protrude or fall from their train, or trains or cars on adjacent tracks; also wayside signals and mail cranes, and be on lookout for other impaired clearances.

715. When trains or engines are passing, employes must not remain near the track where they are liable to be struck by coal, stone, car doors or other objects which may protrude or fall from engines or cars.

716. Turntables not under immediate supervision of an employe must be kept locked.

717. When persons who are evidently intoxicated, ill or in any other condition making them unfit to care for themselves, are seen in a position of danger in the vicinity of tracks or stations, they should be guarded from approaching trains and engines, and when unable
to remove them to a place of safety, the proper
authorities must be notified.

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718. In an emergency, or in case of obstruction by accident or other cause, the employe upon whom the responsibility most naturally falls must assume authority until the arrival of an OHICGT, and must at once report conditions and make suggestions as to forces, material and equipment required.
In case of damage to trains or structures wherein the security of company property or freight is involved, watchmen must be immediately stationed and arrangements ‘made promptly for the protection of such property against theft, or loss from other causes.

719. Whenever passengers or employes are injured, everything possible must be done to care for them properly. If they are able to be moved, they must be taken for treatment to the nearest place at which the company has a surgeon. If the case is urgent and the company surgeon cannot be immediately procured, the conductor, agent or officer in charge is authorized to call the nearest surgeon available to administer first aid and care for the patient until the company surgeon can take charge of the case.

719 (A). In case of serious accident to trains, conductors, after making everything safe, must give their undivided attention to the care and comfort of their passengers, especially to those who are injured.
Bedding and linen may be taken from sleepers for this purpose, the conductor arranging with sleeping car employes to keep account of all material so taken. When necessary, injured persons may be put in the sleepers.
Quick action is especially imperative in cases of serious injury and particularly so in connection with accidents to passenger trains wherein any passengers thereon are injured.
When a number of persons are injured, the services of competent surgeons, preferably company surgeons in the vicinity, should be secured at once.

719 (B). In case of injuries to trespassers or others, injured person or persons must be taken to nearest station, when possible, and either placed in the care of relatives or friends, or in the charge of the local county, city or village authorities. Necessary medical attention should be arranged with the distinct understanding that no expense, other than necessary first aid, will be assumed by the company without specific authority from either the superintendent or general claim department.

720. In case of death on a train, the body should be taken to the next station where se1•vices of an undertaker are available, and superintendent notified immediately.
In case of death on company property, or when a corpse is found thereon, after exact position of body and surrounding conditions have been carefully noted, body should be moved to give clear passage for trains. An employe or other responsible person must be left in charge until coroner or undertaker arrives and superintendent notified immediately.
In all cases, the proper public officer must be notified promptly and a wire report must be made to superintendent.

721. Conductors in charge of trains carrying passengers must have supply of prescribed forms for taking names of passengers on trains involved in an accident. One of these forms should be completely filled out for each passenger on train, whether or not passenger claims conductor’s duties immediately following the accident are such as to prevent his obtaining these, he should delegate a trainman or some other available employe on train to procure them. These should be turned over to the claim agent, as soon as he boards train, or to the superintendent at destination, if not picked up by the claim agent.

721 (A). In case of personal injury, loss of life, or damage to property in which a train or any of its passengers is involved, the conductor must immediately secure the names, addresses and occupations of all persons involved, including all persons at the scene when the accident occurred and those arriving soon thereafter, regardless of whether these persons admit knowing anything about the accident. License numbers of automobiles nearby must be obtained. This information obtained with the assistance of other employes when necessary, should be included in reports made covering such occurrences.
Where signalling devices are provided, or crossing watchmen or flagmen are on duty, a special effort should be made to determine who, among the witnesses, can testify whether the signalling devices were functioning properly or if the crossing watchman or flagman was properly performing his duty. Names of witnesses who can testify relative to bell and whistle signals must be obtained when possible to do so.

722. In cases where persons or vehicles are struck and injured or damaged by trains or engines on crossings in the vicinity of stations, the person in charge at point where accident occurred will immediately, with the assistance, if possible, of one or two disinterested persons not connected with the company, locate on a rough sketch and show by actual measurement the position of all cars standing on tracks at or near the crossing, and send report to the superintendent, describing the cars, giving the initials and number of each and their location with reference to the crossing where the accident occurred.

723. All accidents resulting in injuries to employes when on duty, and off—duty accidents where they occur on railway premises, and all accidents to persons other than employes occurring on railway property, regardless of the extent of injuries, and all accidents resulting in property damage must be promptly reported to the superintendent.

724. All equipment such as cars, engines, machinery or tools, etc., also premises involved in accidents resulting in personal injuries, should be promptly inspected by the foreman or other person in charge of the work or by other competent inspectors, to ascertain the condition of same. A report of such inspection, stating the conditions found and name or names of the persons making the inspection, should be promptly forwarded to the superior officer of the person making the inspection.
When tools, machinery or other types of equipment or appliances are involved in an accident resulting in personal injury, they should, if at all possible, be marked for identification and placed in custody of some responsible officer or employe and held subject to the order of the general claim department or the superintendent, regardless of whether or not inspection reveals any defect therein.

725. When engines, cars or other rolling stock are involved in an accident resulting in personal injury, such inspection as can be made should be made before such equipment leaves the place of accident. A further inspection should be made at the first terminal by at least two competent employes, preferably by car inspector, car foreman or master mechanic.
Report of the result of this inspection should be promptly forwarded through the proper channels to the superintendent and by him transmitted to the general claim department.

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726. Every precaution must be taken to prevent loss and damage by fire. The rules and instructions governing prevention and fire protection must be fully complied with.
The cause of a fire must be ascertained, if possible, and promptly reported by wire to the superintendent.
Buildings and structures must be kept free of refuse. Oily clothing or waste must not be stored in lockers. Stove pipe and flues must be kept in safe condition. Matches must be kept in proper receptacles.

726 (A). Employes must report at first opportunity the presence of fires on or near right of way, unless fire is being controlled by other employes. In case of danger of fire spreading to a bridge or other structure, train must be stopped and crew assist in extinguishing fire.
The conductor must promptly notify his engineer of fires which may have been started by their engine and require an inspection of the fire prevention appliances. Anything that might cause a fire, except lighted fusees, must not be dropped or thrown from an engine or train.

726 (B). In case of fire in a car containing passengers, caretakers or employes, the train must be stopped at once. Occupants that may be in danger must immediately be removed from such car or cars and prevented from reentering such car. Every effort must be made to extinguish the fire. After all occupants have been removed to safety, if it is then found to be impossible to extinguish the fire at the point where train is stopped, the conductor, if advisable and if it can be done with safety, will have train, car or cars moved to the nearest available point where assistance is obtainable.
In case of fire in or between airconditioned passenger cars, immediate action must be taken to shut off airconditioning blower fans on such cars.

727. Employes must familiarize themselves with the Interstate Commerce Commission regulations governing the handling and transportation of explosives and flammables and be governed thereby.

Gunpowder, dynamite, nitroglycerine or other explosives must not be transported in any car attached to a passenger train except that carload shipments of explosives may be made by express and handled in passenger trains when in sealed express cars properly placarded. Such explosives may also be handled in an express peddler car with messenger in charge when such car is assigned to the handling of express and baggage exclusively.

Motion picture film must not be carried in any car in which passengers are carried, except when being transported as baggage or express in accordance with the provisions of Interstate Commerce Commission, Bureau of Safety regulations, or as United States Mail, as provided for in Postal laws and regulations.

Cars placarded “explosives" must be handled with care and as little as possible. They must not be cut off while in motion and permitted to strike another car nor may other cars be cut off and permitted to strike them. They must be removed from all danger of fire and must not be placed in or adjacent to passenger sheds or stations or under bridges. When it can be avoided, engines on adjacent tracks must not be permitted to stand opposite or near such cars.

When handling cars containing explosives or flammables, it must be known that they are in proper place in the train.


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800. The general direction and government of a train is in charge of the conductor and all persons employed on the train are subject to his instructions.
Should there be any doubt as to authority or safety of proceeding, from any cause, he must consult the engineer and shall be equally responsible with him for the safety and proper handling of the train, and for such use of signals and other precautions as the case may require.
He must be vigilant and cautious and must comply with instructions issued by proper authority.

801. When there is no conductor, or when the conductor is disabled, the engineer will, unless otherwise directed, have charge of the train and will be governed by the rules prescribed for conductors. When the train has more than one engine, the senior engineer in the service will assume these duties.

802. Where yardmasters are employed, employes in yard, train and engine service must comply with instructions of yardmasters. Where no yardmaster is employed, they will be governed by instructions of agents in doing work at stations.

803. Members of train and engine crews must observe the indication displayed by train order signals, be prepared to and pick up any train orders or messages, keep a sharp lookout for signals displayed by other trains, and keep in mind the requirements of time-table, train orders, special instructions, bulletins and messages affecting the movement of their train, and must call attention to or take necessary action in event of any oversight or mistake. Other members of the crew in cab of engine must give instant notice to the engineer of any signals or indication of danger or obstruction, or if there is any reason to believe their train may strike a person or object on the track.

When conditions or signals require that the train be stopped or speed of train be reduced and the engineer or conductor fails to take proper action to do so, or should the engineer become incapacitated, other members of the crew must take immediate action to stop train.

There must be no failure to keep a careful lookout ahead, especially while passing through cities, towns and yards.

804. Pile drivers, cranes, derricks or other track or off-track equipment must not be operated to foul a track while trains or other movements are passing. Before blocking or fouling any track, protection in both directions must be provided. Care must be used to avoid contact with overhead wires.

When trains are seen or known to be closely approaching, trains unloading ballast or other track material, or operating dozers, spreaders, snow machinery or similar equipment must stop and be sure adjacent track is clear and booms or other projecting parts of pile drivers, cranes, derricks or other similar track or off-track equipment must be secured to clear adjacent track, and operation stopped.

Derricks or similar machines must not be turned or swung while traveling, either under their own power or when being handled by an engine, except where necessary in short moves of less than 100 feet or in closely continuous travel and work operation.
Before moving a work train, the engine whistle signal 14 ( b) or 14 (h) must be sounded for protection of men working about the train, and the operators of cranes, ditchers or similar machines must be notified.

Cars used in transporting men to and from work should be pulled when practicable.

805. When pile drivers, cranes, derricks, steam shovels or similar equipment of the swinging or pivoting type are being moved on their own wheels or on cars, conductor must know that cars are in proper place in train, with booms properly secured and, when practicable, booms trailing, and engineer notified. Before such equipment is moved, it must be inspected and must receive frequent inspection enroute.

When such equipment is loaded on cars, it must be loaded and secured in strict accordance with A.A.R. loading rules and must be inspected by competent inspector before being moved and must receive frequent inspection

A enroute. Spreaders and dozers being moved in trains must, when practicable, be headed in direction train is moving. In all cases wings must be properly secured.

806. Before coupling to or moving occupied outfit cars, notice must first be given all occupants, and all ladders and other equipment cleared before moving.

Occupied outfit cars should be handled immediately ahead of caboose when practicable. Women or children will not be permitted to ride in such cars unless authorized by the superintendent.

When occupied outfit cars are set out or taken into yards in trains, the train dispatcher and the yardmaster must be promptly notified. When practicable, occupied outfit cars should not be placed adjacent to or in buildings or structures.

Tracks upon which occupied outfit cars are located should not be used for meeting or passing trains, if it can be avoided.

806 (A). Open-top or flat cars loaded with pipe, lumber, poles or other lading which has a tendency to shift, must not be handled in train next to engine, caboose, occupied outfit cars or passenger cars.

807. A crossing with another railroad at grade must not be blocked by trains, engines or cars when it can be avoided.

Public crossings must not be blocked longer than necessary and in no case longer than authorized by instructions or by law.

Cars on any track must be left clear of crossings and so as to not actuate crossing signals, and a clear passageway must be left to the station. When necessary to spot cars in the vicinity of public or private crossings, they must, if practicable, be left a sufficient distance from road, sidewalk or street line to afford a clear view of approaching trains.

808. When it can be avoided, engines must not stand within 100 feet of a public crossing, under bridges or viaducts, or in the vicinity of waiting rooms, telegraph orifices, or near cars which are occupied by passengers.

809. Except in emergency, cars must not be left on sidings without authority. The train dispatcher must be immediately notified when cars are left on sidings.

809 (A). Stored cars, except those of all steel construction, must be fire-spaced in cuts of ten cars each, 100 feet apart.

810. Before coupling to or moving cars or engines in a street, or on station or yard tracks, it must be known that cars are properly secured and that they can be moved with safety.

Before coupling to or moving cars on tracks where cars are being loaded or unloaded, gangplanks, conveyors, tank couplings, elevator spouts and similar loading or unloading devices, must be removed and clear for the movement. All persons in or about the cars must be notified and cars must not be moved unless movement can be made without endangering anyone. When such cars are moved, they must be returned to their former location unless otherwise directed.

810 (A). Care and good judgement must be used in switching cars to avoid damage to contents and equipment, and it must be known that necessary couplings are made and that sufficient hand brakes are set.

When switching at stations or in yards where engines may be working at both ends of the track, movements must be made carefully and an understanding had with other crews involved.

Cars containing livestock must not be switched unnecessarily or cut off and allowed to strike other cars.
Passenger equipment or occupied outfit cars must not be switched without having the air brakes cut in and operative.

810 (B). When switching or placing cars, they must be left where they will fully clear passing cars on adjacent tracks and where they will not cause injury to employes riding on the side of cars.
Cars must not be shoved blind or out to foul other tracks unless the movement is properly protected.

811. Running switches must not be made when practicable to avoid doing so.

Before making a running switch, all members of the crew must understand the movement to be made. It must be known that switches and brakes are in working order. The engine must be run on straight track when practicable.

Running switches must not be made under the following conditions:
With cars containing explosives, flammables or poison gas;
When they involve danger to employes, equipment or contents of cars;
Over or through spring switches or interlockings;
Over or through remote control or dual control switches when the power is on.

812. Caution and good judgement must be exercised in starting and stopping trains to void sudden movements which might cause discomfort or injury to persons or damage to property.
Conductors should call the attention of engineers to any rough handling as soon as the formation can be given, and will make prompt report to the superintendent of any improper handling of trains.

813. When cars are left on any track, sufficient hand brakes must be set to prevent cars moving; if the track is on a grade and hand brakes are not sufficient, wheels must also be blocked or chained and, when practicable, cars must be coupled together. In setting brakes on cars on a grade, brakes must be set on low end of the cut of cars and slack must be bunched to know cars will stand when engine is cut off.
When necessary to hold or stop cars by the use of hand brakes, it must be known that brakes are in good order before cutting off cars.

813 (A). Roller bearing equipment must not be left standing alone on any track unless properly secured. When left standing coupled to other equipment, sufficient hand brakes must be applied to prevent them from moving.

814. When doing work at stations where the grade is such that cars will start if brakes are released, a trainman must be left in charge of the train while work is being done unless slack is bunched and train secured by hand brakes.
Before an engine is detached from a train on a grade, a sufficient number of hand brakes must be applied on the low end of train to hold train; the air brakes must be released and the slack bunched against cars on which the hand brakes are applied.
When engine is recoupled to train, hand brakes must not be released until air brake system is fully recharged.
When shoving train on descending grade, sufficient hand brakes must be set on low end of train to control slack.
Train must not be left standing unattended on a grade, unless air brakes are released, slack is bunched and train properly secured by hand brakes.

815. When an engine is stopped in a tunnel under conditions preventing prompt movement, diesel engines and steam generators must be shut down promptly.
When such engines are shut down, air brakes must be fully applied and, in addition, hand brakes must be applied on each unit, and sufficient hand brakes applied throughout the train to prevent movement should air brakes leak off.

816. A running test of brakes on a passenger train must be made, when practicable, two miles from meeting points, junctions, railroad crossings, drawbridges, and other points where failure of the brakes to operate properly would result in hazard.

817. Should the air brakes on a train become ineffective, the train must be stopped and engineer must notify the conductor at once.
If the air brakes are so ineffective as to interfere with the safe handling of the train, superintendent must be notified. Further movement must be authorized by the superintendent.

818. Passenger trains must not be backed without suitable back—up hose or its equivalent, and the conductor or other competent employe at the rear, and when such back-up hose is to be used, the brakes must be tested as prescribed by the air brake rules.

819. Trainmen must know by speed of train, grade or caboose air gauge that train is being handled safely and under control, and, when necessary, take immediate action to get train under safe control.

820. Except as otherwise provided, employes will be governed by instructions contained in the current air brake instruction book issued by their company, covering operation and maintenance of air brake and air signal apparatus.

840. Where a yardmaster is employed, the general direction and government of the yard is in his charge. He is responsible for the proper makeup and movement of trains through the yard, the careful, prompt and proper handling of cars, compliance with requirements as to the diversion, refrigeration, ventilation and heating of cars, and for the proper position and security of all yard switches.

850. Trainmen must report for duty at the appointed time, and, by personal attention, insure departure of their train at the required time.
They must see that their trains are provided with proper supplies, tools and equipment at all times and know that the brakes are in proper working order.
Conductors must expedite the handling of trains and performance of station work. If necessary to avoid serious delay, the operator must be called.

851. Conductors must know that their trainmen are familiar with and perform their duties, and that they properly understand and comply with the rules and special instructions, particularly those relating to protection of trains. They must instruct them if necessary and caution them as to the risks involved. Inefficiency and insubordination must be reported to the proper authority.

852. When not engaged elsewhere as specifically provided by the rules, trainmen must occupy the place assigned to them.

On freight trains, unless otherwise provided, the forward trainman must ride in control cab of engine at front of train.

The flagman must be on the rear car of the train except on a passenger train when rear car is a business, dining or observation car, he will ride in car next ahead, and should get on and off at first opening ahead of such cars.

853. Conductors whose duties require it must be familiar with and respect current tariffs, rules and instructions of the traffic department and the requirements of the accounting department.

854. Trainmen must attend to the needs of those in charge of livestock and other freight, see that cars occupied by them are given proper attention as to heat and water, and information given as to stops for meals or change of cars.
Attendants and other passengers authorized to ride on freight trains should only be permitted to get on or off when train is stopped.


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